The first theorist, who explicitly makes the practical procedure of producing flat
surfaces ("primal production", german: "Urzeugung", "3-plates-procedure") a basis
of a terminological determination of the term "plane" is Hugo Dingler (1881-1954).
He has the idea to terminologically use the terms of a description of the procedure
(touch relations, fitting) to give a definition of "plane surface" as a specifically
formed surface (1911). For five decades Dingler´s effort directed at the constitution
of a pre-theory of geometry in order to derive from that the axioms of geometry remains
without success. Furthermore, the deficiencies of his contributions are also tremendous.

Paul Lorenzen (1915-1994) takes over the Dingler´s idea and gives it a precise logical
form as homogeneity principle. He proposes a construction of geometric theory on
this basis, a mathematical sound task, but of very questionable relevance to the
foundational problem undertaken by Dingler himself. After some repairing efforts
Lorenzen later abandons this approach.